by Italian group 3
If you prepare an aqueous extract of red cabbage leaves you can observe color change in the solutions having different pH.
Some substances are classified as either an acid or a base. Think of acids and bases as opposites—acids have a low pH and bases have a high pH. For reference, water (a neutral) has a pH of 7 on a scale of 0–14. Scientists can tell if a substance is an acid or a base by means of an indicator. An indicator is typically a chemical that changes color if it comes in contact with an acid or a base.
As you can see, the purple cabbage juice turns red when it mixes with something acidic and turns green when it mixes with something basic. Red cabbage juice is considered to be an indicator because it shows us something about the chemical composition of other substances.
What is it about cabbage that causes this to happen? Red cabbage contains a water-soluble pigment called anthocyaninthat changes color when it is mixed with an acid or a base. The pigment turns red in acidic environments with a pH less than 7 and the pigment turns bluish-green in alkaline (basic) environments with a pH greater than 7.
Red cabbage is just one of many indicators that are available to scientists. Some indicators start out colorless and turn blue or pink, for example, when they mix with a base. If there is no color change at all, the substance that you are testing is probably neutral, just like water.
The water dissolves certain pigments found in red cabbage, the '' anthocyanins '' (or'' Anthocyanins ''), which can function as pH indicators, assuming different colors in the presence of acidic or basic substances. So if you put a lemon in a vial of liquid of red cabbage the liquid changes color and becomes red because the acidity of lemon is between 2 and 3. While if you put a substance less acidity like bicarbonate the liquid becomes blue.