INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS/AFFAIRS (basics)
The topic of international relations is really hard and complicated. There are many theories and studies that try to explore and understand the theory and reality of there relations.
Basic definition of international relations:
"a branch of political science concerned with relations between nations and primarily with foreign policies".
The basic features of international relations:
interdisciplinarity - international relations consists of many different parts - political studies, economy and finances, international law, diplomatic relations and diplomacy, sociology, history, geography,international security, ecology and environment, and mamy mamy others. This is why it is one of the most complex and difficult kind of study
international anarchy - the system of international relations has one main feature - there is no international government. This means that it consists of many sovereign governments - all representing different approaches and priorities - economical, social, religious, moral and ideological. As we try to promote international cooperation in form of international organizations (e.g. United Nations), these still have no real government structure - because they have to respect the sovereignty of intividual states. This is what creates the factual international anarchy.
If we ask - why there are so many misunderstandings and conflicts in the world, the basic answer is here - in the fact, that our world is fractured in many states with many believes - there is no one religion, culture, law, economy or government structure - there are many.
Based on the information from the main UN webpage:
"The United Nations is an international organization founded in 1945. It is currently made up of 193 Member States. The mission and work of the United Nations are guided by the purposes and principles contained in its founding Charter."
The Purposes of the United Nations are:
- To maintain international peace and security, and to that end: to take effective collective measures for the prevention and removal of threats to the peace, and for the suppression of acts of aggression or other breaches of the peace, and to bring about by peaceful means, and in conformity with the principles of justice and international law, adjustment or settlement of international disputes or situations which might lead to a breach of the peace;
- To develop friendly relations among nations based on respect for the principle of equal rights and self-determination of peoples, and to take other appropriate measures to strengthen universal peace;
- To achieve international co-operation in solving international problems of an economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian character, and in promoting and encouraging respect for human rights and for fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion; and
- To be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations in the attainment of these common ends
STRUCTURE OF UN:
Due to the powers vested in its Charter and its unique international character, the United Nations can take action on the issues confronting humanity in the 21st century, such as peace and security, climate change, sustainable development, human rights, disarmament, terrorism, humanitarian and health emergencies, gender equality, governance, food production, and more.
The UN also provides a forum for its members to express their views in the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council, and other bodies and committees. By enabling dialogue between its members, and by hosting negotiations, the Organization has become a mechanism for governments to find areas of agreement and solve problems together."