EXPANSION OF THE UNIVERSE AND THE STANDARD MODEL
Tomás López, Cristian; Truyenque Paucar, Gianella; Villalta Pérez, Alba; Vizcaíno Mateo, Odri.
IES Matilde Salvador, Castellón de la Plana, Spain
During the second assessment of the course 2014-2015, the students of 1st Bachelor of Science Technology in IES Matilde Salvador, Odri Vizcaíno Mateo, Gianella Truyenque Paucar, Cristian Tomás López , Alba Villalta Pérez have made a research and an investigation about deals with the expansion of the Universe and the Standard Model.
To perform this work they have found a lot of information based on their origin and theories that have come far in these explanations. The origin of the Universe is said to be the moment when there was a big explosion that brought up all the matter and energy in the Universe that we currently have.
Scientists try to explain the origin of the Universe with several theories. The most accepted is The Big Bang Theory, which means that all matter in the universe was concentrated in a very small space, and exploded.
Alan Guth's inflationary theory that tries to explain the first moments of the universe based on studies of very strong gravitational fields similar to those that occur near a black hole.
The so-called Standard Model holds that there are only three types of elementary particles: quarks, leptons and bosons. The matter around us is made exclusively by quarks u and d type and leptons (electrons and electron neutrinos) and quarks u and d type (protons and neutrons are, according to this model, particles formed by the combination of three quarks).
The Universe is expanding faster and faster and the rate depends on the energy content. This means that something unknown is even pushing out more and has been given the name of dark energy, constituting 70% of the Universe. The rest, about 23% is due to dark matter and only about 4% of the energy density corresponds to ordinary matter.
The mass of the Universe is given by M = 9.27 x 10^52 kg. At the moment, the Universe expands with acceleration ten thousand millionths of the acceleration of gravity at the Earth's surface.
The Standard Model is an excellent theory, which identifies the particles that constitute matter and describes how they interact. The Higgs boson is a particle of this model generates a field interacting with itself, we obtain the mass of the particles. The Standard Model has difficulty explaining particular forms of that interaction; one of them is that, for the present theory calculations, the mass of the Higgs boson would be very large, and therefore, the particles of the Standard Model would also large masses.
In conclusion, the new knowledge about the expansion of the Universe opened "a door that leads to a new chapter of possibilities to explore"
In our opinion, although we do not realize, physics is an essential part of our life, because it all depends on what surrounds us; therefore, this work is interesting. In spite of this, you are missing an extension of the concepts of knowledge, but that is understandable since we do not have sufficient knowledge to understand in all its complexity.
Prades Mateu, Óscar; Qiu, Yipei; Salvador Domínguez, Noelia; Serra González, Andrea.