Bases on the Moon Made of the Astronauts’ Urine?
European scientists invented concrete that can be created from lunar soil and urea (ingredient of urine). First tests give optimistic results.
NASA, ESA and Chinese space agency get ready to build bases on the Moon in the coming decades. Scientists have to solve radiation, high temperatures, meteorites, and logistic problems, which include transportation of building materials.
This last problem may be solved in a surprising way. The specialist from Italy, Norway, Spain and the Netherlands invented a way to produce cement from lunar regolith (loose material present on the surface) with the urea. This substance can be obtained from human urine. They made a lot of research. In subsequent tests, urea-based material (geopolymer concrete) held heavy loads with minimal deformation. After eight cycles of freezing and defrosting (similar to the processes on the Moon), the durability of the structure increased even more.